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Classification of Transplants

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Classification of Transplants

Post  sudheerkher on Fri Nov 14, 2008 1:26 am

Classification of Transplants

Transplants may be classified in various ways:

1) Based on the organ or tissue transplanted, they are classified as heart, kidney, skin transplant, etc.
2) Based on the anatomical site of origin of transplant, and the site of its placement, grafts are classified as: orthotopic and heterotopic.
Orthotopic grafts are applied in anatomically ‘normal’ sites. E.g. skin grafts.
Heterotopic grafts are applied in anatomically ‘abnormally’ sites. E.g. when thyroid tissue is transplanted in a subcutaneous pocket.
3) Transplants may be fresh tissues and organs or of stored ones.
4) Transplants may be of living or dead materials. Live grafts (called vital grafts) e.g. kidney or heart are expected to survive or function physiologically in the recipient. Nonliving transplants (called static or structural grafts) e.g. bone marrow or artery, merely provide scaffolding on which new tissue is laid by the recipient.
5) Transplants may be classified based on the genetic (& antigenic) relationship between the donor and the recipient.
  • An organ or tissue taken from an individual and grafted on himself is an autograft.

  • A graft taken from an individual and placed on another individual of the same genetic constitution is called an isograft e.g. Identical twins.

  • Grafts between 2 genetically nonidentical members of the same species are called allografts (formerly called homografts).

  • Grafts between members of different species are called xenografts (formerly called heterografts).


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